Raspberry Pi ODK Briefcase based hub/server for offline/online management

(Chrissy h Roberts) #1



A deployable ODK Briefcase based data hub based on Raspberry Pi Raspbian


Some of our users are working in areas with little or no internet connection, so a portable hub for aggregating data in the field, which is able to later push data to ODK aggregate is a useful interim/backup device that can also be preconfigured to output CSVs, PDF copies of data and so on for on the ground data needs.

The ODK briefcase software provides all the functionality we need for this purpose. The benefits of putting briefcase on to a Raspberry Pi (RPi) are

  • The small size and weight of the RPi mean that you could send it in the post, carry it in your pocket and include it as a 'just in case' plan B measure for studies where your baggage allowance is only what you can carry.
  • Dedicated system means you don't have to 'donate' your own laptop to study team for the duration of the work.
  • The RPi costs ~£35 and can be used with a tablet/phone/TV as display and touchscreen/keyboard/mouse as I/O devices
  • Runs off pretty much any power source and has low consumption and heat output. Can be run inside a tupperware box, so good off grid, in the rainforest and so on.
  • Provides full linux system including encryption/decryption, R, Python, Java etc.
  • SD cards can be cloned, meaning that you can take a box of RPis and set up as many hubs as you need if the scale of project grows.

These instructions should be sufficient to set up a new installation of the Raspbian operating system, then to install any necessary packages and software (including ODK Briefcase). It will also help you to set up the system so that you can work with Android devices via the MTP protocol (which is not especially obvious) and various other tips and tricks that make all these things fit together.

Nothing in this guide is particularly difficult and not novel, but I think this is the first place where everything is listed as a single set of instructions.


Raspberry Pi (Tested on R Pi 3 B+)
SDHC Micro SD card (16 GB tested) formatted to FAT / FAT32
Noobs https://www.raspberrypi.org/downloads/noobs/

R Pi Setup

  • Install Noobs as per instructions. Tested on Noobs Lite (Network install)

    1. Copy all files from noobs folder on to SDHC card
    2. Plug SD card in to RPi.
  • Power on the RPi, connect to Wifi, follow steps to install Raspbian and update

You should now have a basic RPi installation of raspbian

  • Fiddle around with your wifi settings, bluetooth etc.
  • Open Terminal

Get current date and time from internet at startup

The RPi doesn't have a real time clock onboard, so I'd recommend putting on a clock board if using this in the field. Otherwise you'll be relying on internet time. For the time being though, let's stick with the basic board and grab internet time at startup.

sudo nano /etc/rc.local

  • Add the following line to the rc.local file above where it says exit 0

date -s "$(wget -qSO- --max-redirect=0 google.com 2>&1 | grep Date: | cut -d' ' -f5-8)Z"

Update list of packages and remove bloatware

I'm guessing you don't want to play Minecraft on this RPi (though it is a great game) so let's save about 1.5 GB of SD card space and remove bloatware that comes preinstalled on this version of Raspbian.

sudo apt-get update  
sudo apt-get upgrade
sudo apt-get remove --purge wolfram-engine scratch2 libreoffice* scratch minecraft-pi sonic-pi dillo gpicview
  • select 'y' or 'Y' when prompted to remove these packages
  • clean up leftover dependencies from removed packages
sudo apt-get clean
sudo apt-get autoremove

Add required packages

This will add a bunch of useful things that you need

sudo apt-get install apt-file
sudo apt-file update
sudo apt-get install libcurl4-openssl-dev libssl-dev libxml2 libxml2-dev libgdal-dev usbmount 

Install Java Development Kit (JDK)

sudo apt-get install ca-certificates-java  
sudo apt-get install openjdk-9-jre

Get odk briefcase

curl --silent "https://api.github.com/repos/opendatakit/briefcase/releases/latest" | grep "browser_download_url" | sed -E 's/.*"([^"]+)".*/\1/' |xargs wget

Set Jar files to open on double click

You probably don't want to have to start ODK Briefcase from the command line every time you use it, so this will make jar files run by double-clicking them

  • Add a java.desktop file to tell OS how to handle .jar files
nano /usr/share/applications/java.desktop 
[[Desktop Entry]
Exec=java -jar %f

Close the 'nano' text editor by pressing CTRL & C and then press "Y" to save the new file

After adding this file you should be able to find an entry called Java in the Open file with... dialog when you right click the jar file.

Select always open with this program and you are set to go.

ODK Briefcase should now be able to download data and export decrypted data when provided with a private key (.pem).

Add support for connecting android devices

Android uses the MTP protocol to connect to linux. This is no doubt safer but is a lot weirder than the old fashioned approach where it just mounted your tablet as a USB drive on your computer. Without a bit of jiggery pokery it's hard to figure out how to find the folders. The next few steps make it much easier.

sudo apt-get install gvfs-backends gvfs-bin gvfs-fuse gvfs-daemons  
  • Plug in and unlock an Android device
  • Find generic parent location of mount using

mount | grep 'gvfsd-fuse'

  • example

gvfsd-fuse on /run/user/1000/gvfs type fuse.gvfsd-fuse (rw,nosuid,nodev,relatime,user_id=1000,group_id=1000)

  • the key folder here is /run/user/1000/gvfs/ but it might be different on your system
  • Change to the root directory and create a symlink to the parent directory
cd ~
ln -s /run/user/1000/gvfs Android_Device

  • Open a file manager window and select Edit > Preferences > Volume Management
  • Unselect "Show available options for removable media..."

You should now have a folder called "Android_Device" in the root directory. When a device is connected to the RPi, this folder should automagically get a new subfolder for the Android MTP protocol.

  • Connect an Android device by USB cable
  • Unlock the device
  • Select "Yes" to any query about using USB/MTB for transfer
  • If you navigate to the Android_Device folder you should see a folder called mtp:host... This has the device's file system inside
  • If you don't see that folder, press F5 to refresh
  • When you switch devices, press F5 to update the folder.

ODK briefcase should now be able to pull all data from devices via the "Android_Devices" Folder.

Navigate to it and you'll see a uniquely named folder under which you should see the internal and SD card folders of your device. Inside one or the other will be your ODK folder. That's the one that ODK Briefcase can pull instances from.

Wireless push of instances from Android to RPi

You can send forms to the RPi through sftp using the excellent andFTP

If you want to run a shell script by double clicking

This can be useful if you have downstream stuff going on, or if you want to write a script to control a batch of ODK briefcase operations from the command line interface (CLI).

  • Create a *.desktop file in your /usr/share/applications
  • Example - do.stuff.sh

nano /usr/share/applications/do.stuff.desktop

[Desktop Entry]
Name=SSH Server  
GenericName=SSH Server  
Comment=Run the do stuff script  

Use open with... and set as default and then script will run on double click

Install R and pandoc

Useful for analysis (R) and reporting (Pandoc)
sudo apt-get install r-base r-base-dev pandoc pandoc-citeproc

Change priority of WIFI networks

This can be useful if you want to control the precedence of networks joined over wifi.

sudo nano /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf

Add priority=2 to the wifi_B block and priority=1 to the wifi_A block in the file.
Higher number is higher priority so here wifi_B will be joined by preference

    ssid = "wifi_A"  
    psk = "passwordOfA"  
    priority = 1  
   ssid = "wifi_B"  
   psk = "passwordOfB"  
   priority = 2  

For UK academics on Eduroam

Eduroam is a UK wide wifi provider for cross-institutional working. It can be hard to set up on RPi, but instructions here should be helpful. Below worked for me.

sudo nano /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf




Hotswitching between networks

Linux provides a nice easy way to switch between networks. A simple sh script would provide a nice clickable way to switch via a GUI, but on RPi you get the added bonus that you can connect physical switches to the pins. A push button could be used to switch between wifi networks (i.e. to move from a fully online network to an offline local wifi network provided by a hotspot. The latter is very useful if you want to use VNC software to allow using an Android tablet as a screen and interface to RPi whilst in the field.

  • To shift from one network to another

wpa_cli select_network 0 or number of network is all you need to do.

Set up github

Github provides a nice way to get updated analysis scripts on to the RPi automatically.
Git is built in to the Raspbian OS, so you just need to connect to GitHub to get your scripts

git config --global user.name "USERNAME"  
git config --global user.email "you@youremail.com"  
git config --global core.editor nano

You could add a git pull script at startup to ensure that all scripts are updated on startup. Alternatively you could set up a cron task.

To run a script after login

sudo nano /etc/profile

Add the following line to the end of the file



Dropbox is a convenient way to get data back off an RPi, though not recommended for sensitive data (at the very least you should encrypt the data).

Dropbox integration for RPi is not great, but Dropbox Uploader is an excellent script for moving stuff to and from Dropbox. These instructions are also very useful.

  • Visit Dropbox Uploader follow the instructions in the README.MD for the most up to date instructions.

Backup your SD card so that you can use it elsewhere or recover from mishaps

BEWARE that you have to use the right mount point (in the example I used /dev/disk3). If you try to write to the wrong disk when restoring the SD card, then you will probably brick your system.

Run df to see what mounts you have. Identify which one is the disk you want to restore to.

To clone RPi SD Card
sudo dd if=/dev/disk3 of=/Volumes/RPi_Backups/name bs=1m

To restore RPi SD Card
sudo dd if=/Volumes/RPi_Backups/name of=/dev/disk3 bs=1m

(Dr. Gareth S. Bestor) #2

Awesome writeup @chrissyhroberts! :clap: I feel inspired... :slight_smile:

Have you thought about setting up NTP, for somewhat better long-term timekeeping? eg this has a pretty good HOWTO writeup.